Ana Paula Gonzalez Torres

Ana Paula is a doctoral researcher working in the legal lens at the “Civic Agency in AI: Democratising Public AI Services” project.

The legal lens focuses on the potential social, political, and ethical implications for providers and recipients of public sector AI services where the potential risks may be high or unknown. In light of the “Artificial Intelligence Act”, our objective is to examine the rights, risks and responsibilities of different actors in civil society (including industry/public sector) for algorithmic public services. We aim to understand how key principles and values, including transparency, trustworthiness, explicability and inclusiveness, are and should be integrated into public AI services.” 

Her work is centred on the regulation of artificial intelligence (AI) based systems, with a focus on the Artificial Intelligence Act and its impact on AI-based public services. Her research aims to bridge the gap between legal provisions and computer science practices with a view for responsible AI, meaning embedding legal and ethical considerations in the development and adoption of AI-based systems

My research is in the  intersection between law and computer science, having a background in law, my transition to computer science sparked from the realization that one cannot regulate such that one cannot understand.”

In her work Ana Paula studies the AI Act, AI regulatory sandboxes as a framework for flexible and experimental regulation, global AI policy, efforts in AI standardization and public sector use of AI-based systems

Ana Paula received a  Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza (L.M.G.) from the Università degli Studi di Genova with the thesis “A study on artificial intelligence in the legal profession in light of the European Union’s proposed ‘Artificial Intelligence Act’ and rules of civil procedure” and a Master of Laws (LL.M.) from the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign with a concentration on Intellectual Property and Technology Law. 

In the past she has worked in LGBTQAI+ rights activism; immigration, criminal, trademark,  patent, and space law.


  •  Gonzalez Torres, A.P., Kajava, K., Sawhney, N. (2023). Emerging AI Discourses and Policies in the EU: Implications for Evolving AI Governance. In: Pillay, A., Jembere, E., J. Gerber, A. (eds) Artificial Intelligence Research. SACAIR 2023. Communications in Computer and Information Science, vol 1976. Springer, Cham.
  • Gonzalez Torres, A. P., & Sawhney, N. (2023). Role of Regulatory Sandboxes and MLOps for AI-Enabled Public Sector Services. The Review of Socionetwork Strategies.


  • Gonzalez Torres, A. P. (2023). Responsible AI: Law and Advancing Moral Responsibilization. Tethics, 6th Proceedings Conference on Technology Ethics, Turku Yliopisto, Turku, Finland.
  • Gonzalez Torres, A. P. (2022). Devising Regulatory Sandboxes and Responsible Practices for Designing AI-based Services in the Finnish Public Sector, International Workshop on AI Compliance Mechanism (WAICOM 2022), 35th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems (JURIX 2022), Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
  • Gonzalez Torres, A. P. (2022). Allocation of Compliance Responsibilities in Artificial Intelligence Lifecycle. Doctoral Symposium. 21st EPIA Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal

Online Articles:

Responsible AI, Turku University by Salla Westerstand.